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Solution Principles Of Soil Dynamics Das Free Downloadrar



Because of these multiple interfering parameters, the effects of IONPs on plants are variable and often appear quite hazardous, ranging from positive to lethal.21,22 The adverse effects of IONPs on plants generally result from oxidative stress and/or from decreased cellular exchange with the media due to particle binding onto the cell surface.23 Once in the cell, metal nanoparticles could interfere with the electron transport chain of both chloroplasts and mitochondria, which may result in an oxidative burst, as observed by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration.24 Although ROS can act as secondary messengers in the stress signal transduction pathway, excessive ROS production can cause oxidative stress, which damages plants by oxidizing photosynthetic pigments, membrane lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.25,26 On the other hand, IONPs can indirectly impact plant metabolism. In particular, IONPs can react with pollutants in soils and soil solutions, such as heavy metals or pesticides and other contaminants, and thus modify their availability, transport and toxicity.




Solution Principles Of Soil Dynamics Das Downloadrar


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